The Vietnam War ensured that discussions of the justness of war and the legitimacy of conscription and civil disobedience were prominent in early writings in applied ethics. There was considerable support for civil disobedience against unjust aggression and against unjust laws even… Evolution of theories of war Reflecting changes in the international system, theories of war have passed through several phases in the course of the past three centuries. After the ending of the wars of religion, about the middle of the 17th century, wars were fought for the interests of individual sovereigns and were limited both in their objectives and in their scope. The art of maneuver became decisive, and analysis of war was couched accordingly in terms of strategies.
Link directly to this section On the night of July 23,an Israeli aircraft intentionally fired missiles at and struck two Lebanese Red Cross ambulances performing rescue operations, causing huge explosions that injured everyone inside the vehicles.
If true, the incident would have been an egregious and indefensible violation of the Geneva Convention, and would constitute a war crime committed by the state of Israel.
What does it matter whether there was a big cloud of smoke over Beirut, or a really big cloud of smoke, as one notorious doctored photograph showed? The ambulance incident, however, was anything but trivial. The media accused Israel of the most heinous type of war crime: If true -- and it is almost universally accepted as true -- then Israel would lose any claim to moral superiority in the conflict.
The commanders who ordered the strike should be brought up on war-crimes charges. And as a result, Hezbollah has now claimed victory. The Red Cross Ambulance Incident was perhaps the most damning of all the evidence against Israel, and the most morally indefensible.
Other incidents were open to debate: So this specific incident contributed to the outrage over the war, eventually causing Israel to stand down.
Which makes it all the more shocking to learn that the attack on the ambulances most likely never occurred, and that the "evidence" supporting the claim is in fact a hoax. But even if you think you already know the whole story, it might be worthwhile to see just exactly how the story unfolded, chronologically from the very beginning, and how it acquired new details with every retelling.
Red Cross press release This is where the story apparently first broke: The latest of these incidents occurred on 23 July, at According to Lebanese Red Cross reports, two of its ambulances were struck by munitions, although both vehicles were clearly marked by the red cross emblem and flashing lights that were visible at a great distance.
The incident happened while first-aid workers were transferring wounded patients from one ambulance to another.
As a result, nine people including six Red Cross volunteers were wounded. Notice how this initial description is fairly neutral: Associated Press The story went global when Kathy Gannon of the Associated Press included a description of the incident in a human interest story filed just a few hours later.
The story ran in dozens of newspapersincluding the Los Angeles Times. The AP version of the incident is much more elaborate than the initial report.
Here is the relevant section: In the incident Sunday, one Red Cross ambulance went south of Tyre to meet an ambulance and transfer the wounded to the hospital. The rocket attack on the two vehicles wounded six ambulance workers and three civilians - an year-old boy, an elderly woman and a man, Deebe said.
We are neutral and we should not be targeted. Significantly, however, the ITV report states that journalists did not see the ambulances themselves, and instead shows a film taken by a "local amateur cameraman. As of July,this video is once again available on YouTube, after the version I had originally linked to was taken offline.
The version seen here includes a few still photos and subtitles added over a year after the fact by the person who uploaded it -- photos that were not in the original televised report.
A slow-motion segment of this ITV report -- just the part that shows the ambulances -- can also be viewed here. You can also see many screenshots from the ITV report here. Here is a partial transcript of the noteworthy sections of the report: ITV reporter Julian Manyon: Lebanese ambulance men, shocked and bleeding, brought in as casualties to a hospital in Tyre.
They were hurt when Israeli aircraft rocketed two ambulance crews. On the face of it, it is difficult to understand just how the Israeli military could possibly have mistaken two clearly marked ambulances for a legitimate military target.The Australian military strategy has evolved since the Second World War to incorporate a maritime strategy that seeks to balance the primary requirement for the defense of .
"And there was a real need to establish formal shelters for the public." During the war, from the Hunter to the Illawarra, there were air-raid sirens, 70, feet (21,m) of trench shelters. Jun 27, · Australia's Response to Terrorism.
Australian citizens. 22 This was the greatest loss of Australian life as result of a single incident since the Second World War. Australia's immediate response was to provide a member team of officers from the AFP, ASIO, and state police forces to assist the Indonesian police in their.
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Japanese torpedo attack in Australian waters during the Second World War. The sinking was widely deplored by the Australian public as an atrocity.
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