Source The photograph that has become known as "Migrant Mother" is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of in Nipomo, California. InLange gave this account of the experience: I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked me no questions.
Slave states and free states Abraham Lincoln The United States Constitution of did not use the word "slavery" but included several provisions about unfree persons.
Article I, Section 9 allowed Congress to pass legislation to outlaw the "Importation of Persons", but not until Maryland did not abolish slavery until and Delaware was one of the last states to hold onto slavery; it was still legal in Delaware when the thirteenth amendment was issued.
MissouriKentuckyMaryland and Delawareand so those states were not named in the Proclamation. Coverage[ edit ] The Proclamation applied in the ten states that were still in rebellion inand thus did not cover the nearlyslaves in the slave-holding border states Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland or Delaware which were Union states.
Those slaves were freed by later separate state and federal actions. The state of Tennessee had already mostly returned to Union control, under a recognized Union government, so it was not named and was exempted.
Virginia was named, but exemptions were specified for the 48 counties then in the process of forming the new state of West Virginiaand seven additional counties and two cities in the Union-controlled Tidewater region. These exemptions left unemancipated an additionalslaves.
This act cleared up the issue of contraband slaves. Some 20, to 50, slaves were freed the day it went into effect  in parts of nine of the ten states to which it applied Texas being the exception.
The Proclamation provided the legal framework for the emancipation of nearly all four million slaves as the Union armies advanced, and committed the Union to ending slavery, which was a controversial decision even in the North.
Hearing of the Proclamation, more slaves quickly escaped to Union lines as the Army units moved South. As the Union armies advanced through the Confederacy, thousands of slaves were freed each day until nearly all approximately 3. While the Proclamation had freed most slaves as a war measure, it had not made slavery illegal.
Of the states that were exempted from the Proclamation, Maryland,  Missouri,  Tennessee,  and West Virginia  prohibited slavery before the war ended.
InPresident Lincoln proposed a moderate plan for the Reconstruction of the captured Confederate State of Louisiana.
The state was also required to abolish slavery in its new constitution. Identical Reconstruction plans would be adopted in Arkansas and Tennessee. By Decemberthe Lincoln plan abolishing slavery had been enacted in Louisiana.
Background[ edit ] Military action prior to emancipation[ edit ] The Fugitive Slave Act of required individuals to return runaway slaves to their owners. During the war, Union generals such as Benjamin Butler declared that slaves in occupied areas were contraband of war and accordingly refused to return them.
As a result, he did not promote the contraband designation. In addition, as contraband, these people were legally designated as "property" when they crossed Union lines and their ultimate status was uncertain. In DecemberLincoln sent his first annual message to Congress the State of the Union Addressbut then typically given in writing and not referred to as such.
In it he praised the free labor system, as respecting human rights over property rights; he endorsed legislation to address the status of contraband slaves and slaves in loyal states, possibly through buying their freedom with federal taxes, and also the funding of strictly voluntary colonization efforts.
On March 13,Congress approved a "Law Enacting an Additional Article of War", which stated that from that point onward it was forbidden for Union Army officers to return fugitive slaves to their owners. Slaves in the District of Columbia were freed on April 16,and their owners were compensated.
On June 19,Congress prohibited slavery in all current and future United States territories though not in the statesand President Lincoln quickly signed the legislation. Douglas as a solution to the slavery controversy, while completing the effort first legislatively proposed by Thomas Jefferson in to confine slavery within the borders of existing states.
Public opinion of emancipation[ edit ] Medical examination photo of Gordonwidely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery "Lincoln Speaks to Freedmen on the Steps of the Capital at Richmond" Abolitionists had long been urging Lincoln to free all slaves.
In the summer ofRepublican editor Horace Greeley of the highly influential New York Tribune wrote a famous editorial entitled "The Prayer of Twenty Millions" demanding a more aggressive attack on the Confederacy and faster emancipation of the slaves: President, there is not one If there be those who would not save the Union, unless they could at the same time save slavery, I do not agree with them.
If there be those who would not save the Union unless they could at the same time destroy slavery, I do not agree with them. My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery.
If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.
What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free.
Therefore, this letter, was in truth, an attempt to position the impending announcement in terms of saving the Union, not freeing slaves as a humanitarian gesture. Rather, Lincoln was softening the strong Northern white supremacist opposition to his imminent emancipation by tying it to the cause of the Union.
This opposition would fight for the Union but not to end slavery, so Lincoln gave them the means and motivation to do both, at the same time. Since slavery was protected by the Constitution, the only way that he could free the slaves was as a tactic of war—not as the mission itself.
Late inLincoln asked his Attorney General, Edward Batesfor an opinion as to whether slaves freed through a war-related proclamation of emancipation could be re-enslaved once the war was over. Bates had to work through the language of the Dred Scott decision to arrive at an answer, but he finally concluded that they could indeed remain free.A sheriff in the Hudson River Valley near Albany, New York, about to go into the hills in the fall of to collect back rents from tenants on .
Teacher-created and classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress.
The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of On Black Tuesday, October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. African Americans in the Spanish Civil War: This Ain't Ethiopia, but It'll Do [Danny Duncan Collum] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
On the day after Christmas in , the first contingent of American volunteers intent on fighting the fascist forces threatening democracy in Spain left New York Harbor aboard the SS Normandie.
Try Our Friends At: The Essay Store. Free English School Essays. We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions.