Sometimes genital tissue is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing both immediate and long-term risks; psychological problems depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc. Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually.
Types of FGM Female genital mutilation is classified into four types: Also known as excision, the clitoris and labia minora are partially or totally removed, with or without excision of the labia majora.
The most severe form, it is also known as infibulation or pharaonic type.
A small opening is left for urine and menstrual blood to escape. An infibulation must be opened either through penetrative sexual intercourse or surgery.
This type consists of all other procedures to the genitalia of women for non-medical purposes, such as pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization. Consequences of FGM Immediate consequences of FGM include severe pain and bleeding, shock, difficulty in passing urine, infections, injury to nearby genital tissue and sometimes death.
The procedure can result in death through severe bleeding leading to haemorrhagic shock, neurogenic shock as a result of pain and trauma, and overwhelming infection and septicaemia, according to Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.
Almost all women who have undergone FGM experience pain and bleeding as a consequence of the procedure. The event itself is traumatic as girls are held down during the procedure.
Risk and complications increase with the type of FGM and are more severe and prevalent with infibulations. In addition to the severe pain during and in the weeks following the cutting, women who have undergone FGM experience various long-term effects - physical, sexual and psychological.
Women may experience chronic pain, chronic pelvic infections, development of cysts, abscesses and genital ulcers, excessive scar tissue formation, infection of the reproductive system, decreased sexual enjoyment and psychological consequences, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Additional risks for complications from infibulations include urinary and menstrual problems, infertility, later surgery defibulation and reinfibulation and painful sexual intercourse.
Sexual intercourse can only take place after opening the infibulation, through surgery or penetrative sexual intercourse. Consequently, sexual intercourse is frequently painful during the first weeks after sexual initiation and the male partner can also experience pain and complications.
When giving birth, the scar tissue might tear, or the opening needs to be cut to allow the baby to come out. A multi-country study by WHO in six African countries, showed that women who had undergone FGM, had significantly increased risks for adverse events during childbirth, and that genital mutilation in mothers has negative effects on their newborn babies.
Through biomedical, social science, and public health research in 50 countries, we work with our partners to deliver solutions that lead to more effective policies, programmes, Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) comprises all procedures that involve partial or complete Medicalisation of FGM/C involves the use of health care benjaminpohle.com · Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a term used to describe various traditional practices that involve the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for cultural and traditional reasons in many African benjaminpohle.com://benjaminpohle.com?. · Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls’ and women’s rights to life, physical integrity, and benjaminpohle.com://benjaminpohle.com
According to the study, an additional one to two babies per deliveries die as a result of FGM. · health and social care professionals and teachers in England and Wales to report ‘known’ cases of FGM in under 18s which they identify in the course of their professional work to the police. The duty came into force on 31 October benjaminpohle.com According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), Female Genital Mutilation is the act of removing the external parts of the female genitalia, partially or totally for non-medical reasons (WHO) whereas the practitioners see it as the cutting of “extra skin tags” of the female’s reproductive benjaminpohle.com://benjaminpohle.com Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a socio-religious practice that is very prevalent in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.
It entails the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for cultural or any other non-therapeutic benjaminpohle.com Children and Families Aging, Chronic Conditions, and End of Life Health and Health Care Science and the Self Humans and Nature The arrest of Jumana Nagarwala and her colleagues, in what has become the first case to be tried under the federal law prohibiting female genital mutilation, has brought.
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|Female genital mutilation||That is a large amount of females that undergo this procedure.|
Female genital cutting is complex and controversial. FGC may be considered an historical or political practice while others may see it as a cultural, social or religiousbenjaminpohle.com Recognizing that female genital mutilation is a violation of human rights, as a harmful procedure performed on a child who cannot give informed consent, FIGO recommends that obstetricians and gynecologists OPPOSE any attempt to medicalize the procedure or to allow its performance, under any circumstances, in health establishments or by health.