With increasing world population the amount of solid waste generated has increased dramatically. Sewage sludge and fly ash, are two waste products which are produced in large quantities and pose several environmental hazards.
The raw materials used in the present work were clay soil nor- mally utilized in brick making, supplied by a local clay brick manufacturer, and the type of sewage sludge used was septic tank sludge that was collected from a local sewage treatment plant. Preparation of samples The raw clay was mixed with dried sewage sludge in different proportion, as reported in Table 1.
The batch formulations containing a total amount of and g solids, respec- tively, were prepared by a traditional method, involving the mixing of dry components followed by addition of controlled amounts of water as shown in Table 1.
The sludge-amended clay bricks were hand-moulded by compaction using a rammer. After drying and before baking, the weight and length for each brick was measured.
Characterization of raw materials and sample The complete characterization of the as-received sludge involved determination of its thermal behaviour, average composition, average particle size distribution, and other rel- evant parameters in order to evaluate its suitability to be directly incorporated into clay brick composition.
The ana- lytical methods employed are as shown in Table 2. Mois- ture content of the septic tank sludge was high with a mean value of This was caused by weather conditions since the sludge was exposed to a wet environment on a sand dry- ing bed.
Samples of clay taken from the brick factory showed an average pH value of 4. Plasticity is an important characteristic, describing the ability of a soil to undergo unrecoverable deformation at con- stant volume without cracking or crumbling.
The occurrence of plasticity in clay could be due to the presence of clay minerals that give rise to its cohesive nature, thus, causing it to act as a cement or paste Craig From the particle size distribution graphs shown in Fig.
The samples were analysed, using an automated light-scattering particle size analyser type Micro- trac-X Microtrac Inc.
The raw clay sample investigated contained mainly clay and silt parti- cles whereas the sludge mainly consisted of silt size particles ranging from 0.
Due to the predominance of clay and silt particles its total being As Table 4 illustrates, the chemical composition of the raw clay sample shows that silica SiO 2 was the most abundant Table 1: Mass of raw materials and amount of water required as per brick for different proportions of clay—sludge mixtures.Two types of sludge are produced in the paper industry: sewage sludge and de-inking sludge.
Sometimes, these wastes are mixed and are usually disposed of in landfills, with the consequent risk of contamination of soil and land degradation. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Degree of Master of Environmental Science in the School of Due to the large quantities of sewage sludge generated, management of treated sewage sludge, or biosolids, is becoming increasingly important (USEPA, ).
According to Sukkariyah et al. To check the feasibility of sewage sludge as ingredient in brick making. Conservation of natural resources like clay. To solve the problem of disposal of sewage sludge in urban region.
Prospective inbound mobility students can browse through the list of undergraduate courses available at UTM for the UTM Student Exchange Program below. Use of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a raw material for making clay bricks has been analyzed to be an option to dumping sludges into landfills.
This alternative has been shown feasible and interesting due to the high rate of use of ceramic materials in the building sector. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin